Cross-Cultural Research of Leadership in Sport

Research Questions

In this first research project, we focused on identity leadership. We conducted a cross-sectional study (meaning that data was collected at single point in time from every participant). We collected data using surveys.

What did we want to know?

  • Is identity leadership effective in both WEIRD and non-WEIRD countries?
  • What factors contribute to the effectiveness of identity leadership?
  • Does a country’s culture influence how effective identity leadership is?
  • Whose identity leadership (of coach, team captain or best athlete leaders) is most important in promoting athlete mental health and team effectiveness?


We concentrated on football in this project, as it is the most widely played sport worldwide.

Total Number of Athletes


Total Number of Football Teams


What did we measure in the survey?

How did we measure national culture?

We sorted countries into two groups. The dark blue countries on the map below were categorized as high on collectivism. Meaning that they emphasized a strong sense of pride, loyalty, and unity in their families and organizations. Meanwhile, the light blue countries on the map were low on collectivism.