Leadership in academic settings

Quantitative study

The survey encompassed measures of team identification, job satisfaction, work engagement, team cohesion, organizational citizenship behaviour, and team effectiveness. The reference and items for each measure are provided below.

Team identification

Doosje, Bertjan & Ellemers, Naomi & Spears, Russell. (1995). Perceived Intragroup Variability as a Function of Group Status and Identification. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 31. 410-436. 10.1006/jesp.1995.1018.

Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7, Cronbach’s alpha = .91

  • I see myself as a part of this team.
  • I am glad to be a part of this team.
  • I feel strong ties with other members of this team.
  • I identify with this team.

Job satisfaction

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational behavior and human performance, 16(2), 250-279.

Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7, Cronbach’s alpha = .87

  • Generally speaking, I am very satisfied in this team.
  • Generally speaking, I like being with this team.
  • I am generally satisfied with the kind of work I do in this team.

Work engagement

Schaufeli, W. B., Shimazu, A., Hakanen, J., Salanova, M., & De Witte, H. (2019). An ultra-short measure for work engagement: The UWES-3 validation across five countries. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35(4), 577-591.

Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7, Cronbach’s alpha = .89

  • At my work, I feel bursting with energy.
  • I am enthusiastic about my job.
  • I am immersed in my work.

Team cohesion

Mathieu, J. E., Kukenberger, M. R., D'innocenzo, L., & Reilly, G. (2015). Modeling reciprocal team cohesion–performance relationships, as impacted by shared leadership and members’ competence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 713.

Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7, Cronbach’s alpha = .93

  • There is a feeling of unity and cohesion in my team.
  • There is a strong feeling of belongingness among my team members.
  • Members of my team feel close to each other.
  • Members of my team share a focus on our work.
  • My team concentrates on getting things done.
  • My team members pull together to accomplish work.

Organizational citizenship behaviour

Lee, K., & Allen, N. J. (2002). Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: the role of affect and cognitions. Journal of applied psychology, 87(1), 131.

Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7, Cronbach’s alpha = .95

  • The various members within my team ...
    • help others who have been absent.
    • willingly give their time to help others who have work-related problems.
    • adjust their work schedule to accommodate other employees’ requests for time off.
    • go out of the way to make newer employees feel welcome in the work group.
    • show genuine concern and courtesy toward co-workers, even under the most trying business or personal situations.
    • give up time to help others who have work or nonwork problems.
    • assist others with their duties.
    • share personal property with others to help their work.
    • attend functions that are not required but that help the image of our team.
    • keep up with developments in our team.
    • defend our team when other employees criticize it.
    • show pride when representing our team in public.
    • offer ideas to improve the functioning of our team.
    • express loyalty toward our team.
    • take action to protect our team from potential problems.
    • demonstrate concern about the image of our team.
    • attend functions that are not required but that help the image of the university.

Team effectiveness

Pearce, C. L., & Sims Jr, H. P. (2002). Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams: An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviours. Group dynamics: Theory, research, and practice, 6(2), 172.

Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7, Cronbach’s alpha = .97

  • The team delivers its commitments.
  • The quality of the team’s output is very high.
  • The team faces new problems effectively.
  • The team sets goals and priorities for maximum efficiency.
  • The team communicates its progress.
  • The team’s contribution to the university is very valuable.
  • The team is highly effective.
  • The team delivers its commitments on time.
  • The team performs duties accurately and consistently.
  • The team changes behaviour to meet the demands of the situation.
  • The team develops workable plans.
  • The team proactively communicates its progress.
  • The team makes valuable contributions to the university.
  • The team is making very good progress on the team’s charter.
  • The team provides a volume of work consistent with established standards.
  • The team eliminates root problems, not just symptoms.
  • The team copes with change very well.
  • The team works on important problems.
  • The team keeps everyone informed.
  • The contributions of this team are very valuable to the university.
  • The team does very good work.
  • The team is highly effective at implementing solutions.
  • The team has its priorities straight.
  • The team keeps everyone informed on its progress.
  • The team does a very good job.
  • The team delivers important changes.

Descriptive data of the outcomes

The following bar charts present the average scores for each outcome measure. The initial bar chart represents the overall results and incorporates error bars to visualize the standard deviations.

The next bar chart presents the average scores for each outcome measure, segmented according to the different types of teams within the university. These were all measured using validated scales, and showed average scores ranging from 4.49 to 5.76 on a scale from 1 to 7.